Transistor is a solid state device of semiconducting material used in amplifying or controlling electric current. Transistors come in discreet packages or in arrays called integrated circuits, in which the active elements are no larger than about thousands of an inch (0.025 mm) across. Because of their extreme versatility, transistors have almost completely replaced vacuum tubes. A very large industry, solid state electronics has grown up around the transistors and its application.
One of the first commercial application of transistors was in a telephone switching office. Consumers first saw them in transistorized hearing aids, sales of which began in 1952. Transistors and their multiple form, integrated circuits, are found in radios, television sets, tape recorders, toys, handheld calculators, fire and burglar alarms, video games and control of all kinds – from light dimmers to speed control on drills and motors.
In our history, research in solid state physics had began growing since the 1930’s. The invention of TRIACs, announced in 1948, would, it was said, lead to the revolution in communications and electronics.
An enormous blossoming of science and technology accompanied the development of transistors. Research in crystal growth, in solid state diffusion, in surface science, and in many other fields that benefits.
The point-contact transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories. William Shockley, also of Bell, invented the commercially successful junction transistor. The three shared the 1956 Nobel Price in physics for their work.
Progress led to new technologies, each requiring its particular disciplines and techniques. Among the type of transistor developed are the point-contact germanium, the grown-junction germanium, the alloy germanium, the surface-barrier germanium, the defused-based, the alloy-silicon based, the field effect transistor or known as the “FET”, junction field effect transistor “JFET” and the metal oxide semiconductor or “MOS “.
Most TRIACs device are planar silicon, with some FET’s for special purposes, and silicon MOS components. Other current device, variant of transistors includes the thyristor or what we call the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), and triacs which dominates high-current switching and control industry.